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HOWTO install Oracle 11g on Ubuntu Linux 12.04 (Precise Pangolin) 64bits

Par Gaël Pegliasco publié 11/07/2012

Esta página ha sido traducida en español por Maria Ramos de

Before starting

Since release 11.10 it is more difficult to install Oracle 64bits on Ubuntu.
If you need to run Oracle on a production environment, please install a supported Linux distribution.
So why installing Oracle on Ubuntu ?

  • You may manage Ubuntu servers and cannot use other linux distributions
  • You may be a developper, and clearly, ubuntu is a good choice for the desktop environment so you want to continue developing on your favorite distribution
  • You may be a student learning Oracle, and clearly, ubuntu is a good choice for the desktop environment so you want to continue learning on your favorite distribution
  • Because you want to !

Clearly, Oracle should officially support ubuntu linux !

Since version 11.10 of Ubuntu, installing Oracle as become much more complicated than already described in this previous Oracle installation guide on Ubunto 64bits how to.
This is due to, at least, the following points:

  • /dev/shm is a symbolic link to /run/shm and Oracle binaries do not properly support this, resulting in MEMORY TARGET errors
  • new configuration/compilation rules with gcc (indirect library linking) no more allow a library A referencing functions of library C linked with library B that is linked with library A. In this case, library A must be explicitly linked with library C too. So Oracle makefiles have to be updated for some libraries.

 This how to is based on the following two others and many others contributions:

So, why writing my own ?
Because they were not so easy to found, and I had started my own article before solving all the encountered issues.
Because they do not all describe or explain all errors I've encoutered and because I suggest others solutions to solve parts of encoutered as for /dev/shm.

Downloading Oracle 11g 64 bits for Linux

First, download Oracle 11gR2 Enterprise/Standard Edition for Linux x86-64 from Oracle website.

Then extract the downloaded file:


A new folder named database will be extracted.

Preparing the system

Second, read the HTML documentation of the quick install guide you can found in the extracted folder at this place: database/doc/install.112/e10860/toc.htm

For the rest of this howto, we suppose Oracle will be installed at /opt/oracle Root directory in a freshly newly installed Linux Ubuntu distribution.

We will have to:

  • Create required users and groups accounts
  • Set required system parameters in /etc/sysctl.conf
  • Installing complementary packages

Creating system accounts

Creating Oracle Inventory group:

	sudo groupadd oinstall

Creating Oracle DBA group:

	sudo groupadd dba

Creating Oracle user home and account:

	sudo mkdir -p /opt/oracle
	sudo useradd -g oinstall -G dba  -d /opt/oracle -s /bin/bash oracle
	sudo passwd oracle
	sudo chown -R oracle:oinstall /opt/oracle

For Oracle 10g, it was required to add nobody user group, this is no more required with 11g as it is no more described in 11g quick installation guide.

Updating kernel parameters

This is one of the longest task of this installation. Because you will have to check your current config.
Check commands in Oracle documentation for this, section 6 Configuring Kernel Parameters.
Then, edit the file /etc/sysctl.conf as described below:

	sudo gedit /etc/sysctl.conf

Add the following lines to get minimal values required by Oracle, adjusting if required, depending of your configuration:

# Oracle 11g
kernel.sem = 250 32000 100 128
kernel.shmall = 2097152
kernel.shmmni = 4096
# Replace kernel.shmmax with the half of your memory in bytes
# if lower than 4Go minus 1
# 1073741824 is 1 GigaBytes

# Try sysctl -a | grep ip_local_port_range to get real values
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 9000  65500

net.core.rmem_default = 262144
net.core.rmem_max = 4194304
net.core.wmem_default = 262144
net.core.wmem_max = 1048576

# Max value allowed, should be set to avoid IO errors
fs.aio-max-nr = 1048576
# 512 * PROCESSES / what really means processes ?
fs.file-max = 6815744 

# To allow dba to allocate hugetlbfs pages
# 1001 is your oinstall group, id. grep oinstall /etc/group will give this value
vm.hugetlb_shm_group = 1001

Since Ubuntu Karmic (it was not required on Ubuntu Jaunty) kernel parameters have changed and this was required for 10g.
Without these parameters your Oracle instance won't be able to create shared memory segment and will refuse to start.
Not tested on Ubuntu 12.04 but this is now described in 11g documentation.
You have to replace the value of 1001 with the group ID of the oinstall group.
Read this great howto install Oracle on debian to know more about huge tlb parameter.
Then, run the command below to set these kernel parameters:

	sudo sysctl -p 

Now, update /etc/security/limits.conf:

	sudo gedit /etc/security/limits.conf

And add the following parameters:

# Oracle
oracle           soft    nproc   2047
oracle           hard    nproc   16384
oracle           soft    nofile  1024
oracle           hard    nofile  65536
oracle           soft    stack   10240

Check that /etc/pam.d/login contains a line like this one:

	session    required

Now, update /etc/profile:

	sudo gedit /etc/profile

And add the following lines:

if [ $USER = "oracle" ]; then
        if [ $SHELL = "/bin/ksh" ]; then
              ulimit -p 16384
              ulimit -n 65536
              ulimit -u 16384 -n 65536

Installing additional packages

If not already done, update your distribution with the latest packages:

	sudo apt-get update
	sudo apt-get dist-upgrade

Install the following additional packages:

sudo apt-get install alien
sudo apt-get install autoconf
sudo apt-get install automake 
sudo apt-get install autotools-dev
sudo apt-get install binutils
sudo apt-get install bzip2
sudo apt-get install doxygen
sudo apt-get install elfutils
sudo apt-get install expat
sudo apt-get install gawk
sudo apt-get install gcc
sudo apt-get install gcc-multilib
sudo apt-get install g++-multilib

# This will help preventing prevent from runInstaller terrific ./runInstaller: line 54: ./install/.oui: No such file or directory error message
sudo apt-get install ia32-libs

sudo apt-get install ksh
sudo apt-get install less
sudo apt-get install lesstif2
sudo apt-get install lesstif2-dev
sudo apt-get install lib32z1
sudo apt-get install libaio1
sudo apt-get install libaio-dev
sudo apt-get install libc6-dev
sudo apt-get install libc6-dev-i386
sudo apt-get install libc6-i386 
sudo apt-get install libelf-dev
sudo apt-get install libltdl-dev
sudo apt-get install libmotif4
sudo apt-get install libodbcinstq4-1 libodbcinstq4-1:i386
sudo apt-get install libpth-dev
sudo apt-get install libpthread-stubs0
sudo apt-get install libpthread-stubs0-dev
sudo apt-get install libstdc++5
sudo apt-get install lsb-cxx
sudo apt-get install make
sudo apt-get install openssh-server
sudo apt-get install pdksh
sudo apt-get install rlwrap
sudo apt-get install rpm
sudo apt-get install sysstat
sudo apt-get install unixodbc
sudo apt-get install unixodbc-dev
sudo apt-get install unzip
sudo apt-get install x11-utils
sudo apt-get install zlibc 

Preventing from installation errors

To prevent from error genclntsh: Failed to link in make file for rdbms/lib/
beacause of missing library: /usr/bin/ld: cannot find /usr/lib64/libpthread_nonshared.a inside
we need to create a symlink for /usr/lib64:

sudo ln -s /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu /usr/lib64

To help preventing from error lib// undefined reference to `nnfyboot' in make: rdbms/lib/dg4odbc] Error 1

sudo ln -sf /bin/bash /bin/sh
sudo ln -s /usr/bin/awk /bin/awk
sudo ln -s /usr/bin/rpm /bin/rpm 
sudo ln -s /usr/bin/basename /bin/basename 
To prevent from # /lib64/ File or directory does not exists, while creating lib/ in, execute the command:
cd /lib64
sudo ln -s /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/ .

Oracle 11g also needs libstdc++5 in 32bits version that is not provided with Ubuntu Pangolin.
There are many ways to install it, I have followed this howto to install libstdc++5 on Ubuntu Karmic 
Below is the summary of this HOWTO:
mkdir /tmp/libstdc++5
cd /tmp/libstdc++5

sudo dpkg --force-architecture -i libstdc++5_3.3.6-17ubuntu1_i386.deb
sudo mv /usr/lib/* /usr/lib32/

sudo dpkg -i libstdc++5_3.3.6-17ubuntu1_amd64.deb

Now reboot your system to be sure these parameters will be taken in account for the next part of the installation.

Others configurations

Connect as Oracle user and set some default startup file

	sudo su - oracle
	touch .bashrc
	ln -s .bashrc .bash_profile

Edit .bashrc file:

	vi .bashrc

And add the following line:

	umask 022

Execute the .bashrc file or restart a bash shell

	source .bashrc

Installing Oracle

Now we can start the installation of the Oracle 10g archive.

Allow others users to connect to your X session, by entering in a bash shell:

	xhost +

Then, login as oracle user:

	su - oracle

Go in the extracted database folder and run the following commands:

	export DISPLAY=:0

Then, Oracle installer should start in graphic mode.
For the rest of the installation, we suppose you will choose the following options:

  • Installing Oracle 11g Enterprise edition in advanced mode
  • Installing server class
  • Oracle base directory: /opt/oracle/Oracle11gee
  • Oracle home: /opt/oracle/Oracle11gee/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1
  • Oracle inventory: /opt/oracle/oraInventory
  • Oracle database global name and SID: orcl
  • Character set: Unicode AL32UTF8
  • Memory: Uncheck activate automatic memory management to prevent from ORA-00845: MEMORY_TARGET not supported on this system. Antoher solution could be to remove /de/shm symbolic link and mount it as a bind to /run/shm: mount --bind /run/shm /dev/shm. But this no more seems to be an issue on 12.04, was ok as automatic with my last installation.
  • Oradata directory: /opt/oracle/Oracle11gee/oradata

Once you will reach the "pre-reqs" screen, check "Ignore all" to continue the installation.

Then, you will encounter issues.

Solving compilation/link errors

Some issues should appear during installation.

If you have not created the symbolic links above, you will have to solve error lib// undefined reference to `nnfyboot' in make: rdbms/lib/dg4odbc] Error 1. For this, create the symbolic links and execute the commands:

export ORACLE_HOME=/opt/oracle/Oracle11gee/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1
ln -s libclient11.a libagtsh.a
$ORACLE_HOME/bin/genagtsh $ORACLE_HOME/lib/ 1.0

Now we will encounter many errors due to indirect library linking:

To solve error # could not read symbols: Invalid operation /sysman/lib/, enter the command:

export ORACLE_HOME=/opt/oracle/Oracle11gee/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1
sed -i 's/^(s*$(MK_EMAGENT_NMECTL))s*$/1 -lnnz11/g' $ORACLE_HOME/sysman/lib/

To solve error # nsglsn.c:(.text+0xc29): undefined reference to `ons_subscriber_close' /network/lib/, enter the command:

sed -i 's/^(TNSLSNR_LINKLINE.*$(TNSLSNR_OFILES)) ($(LINKTTLIBS))/1 -Wl,--no-as-needed 2/g' $ORACLE_HOME/network/lib/

To solve error # undefined reference to `lfifcp' rdbms/lib/, enter the commands:

sed -i 's/^(ORACLE_LINKLINE.*$(ORACLE_LINKER)) ($(PL_FLAGS))/1 -Wl,--no-as-needed 2/g' $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/lib/

You also need to execute the following commands to prevent from later errors:

sed -i 's/^($LD $LD_RUNTIME) ($LD_OPT)/1 -Wl,--no-as-needed 2/g' $ORACLE_HOME/bin/genorasdksh
sed -i 's/^(s*)($(OCRLIBS_DEFAULT))/1 -Wl,--no-as-needed 2/g' $ORACLE_HOME/srvm/lib/


Finishing the installation

The install process will finally ask you to execute scripts as root user, just do so:

# sudo /opt/oracle/oraInventory/	
sudo /opt/oracle/Oracle11gee/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1/

You should be able to access database web interface through the URL https://localhost:1158/em

Now, add the following variable declaration in your oracle user .profile, .bashrc or .bash_profile scripts:

export ORACLE_HOME=/opt/oracle/Oracle11gee/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1

Then start a new shell or execute one of the updated files:

	source .bashrc


Starting and stopping Oracle

We should now be able to start Oracle database if you had choosed to create one during installation.
If you have not yet created any oracle instance and database use the $ORACLE_HOME/bin/dbca assistant to do so.

Starting up the database

Once your server have been restarted, your database may not start. To solve this issue, first check in /etc/oratabthat it has the 'Y' flag, if not, set it.

	sudo gedit /etc/oratab

And replace N by Y


Finally, to manually start Oracle, run these commands as oracle user

dbstart $ORACLE_HOME

Connecting to the database

Now, just try to connect to the freshly started database:

oracle@makina-oracle:~$ sqlplus system@orcl

SQL*Plus: Release Production on Wed Aug 8 11:18:50 2012

Copyright (c) 1982, 2009, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Enter password:

Connected to:
Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options

SQL> select 'Oracle 11gee is running on Ubuntu 12.04 64 bits' as Welcome from dual;

Oracle 11gee is running on Ubuntu 12.04 64 bits


Shutting down the database

Just entry the following commands with Oracle user:

	dbshut $ORACLE_HOME